An increase in the world interest rate from r' to r>r has the following effects: The vertical line is the full-**employment** output level. Any point on the line implies full-employment and any point above it implies an excess **supply** of labor.

The aggregate demand curve is downward sloping and has an equation of Y=α−βr+Pn.β is the responsiveness of investment to the interest rate, α is autonomous aggregate demand, Pn is the price of non-traded goods, and Y is output. When the world interest rate is r', the equilibrium level of output is Y1, the interest rate is r', and the price level is P1.

Output falls from Y1 to Y2, and the price level falls from P1 to P2, with no change in the interest rate. The interest rate remains fixed because of the currency peg.

Wage inflation, in turn, leads to an increase in the price of non-traded goods, resulting in a rise in the relative price of non-traded goods.

However, the subsidy amount provided is insufficient to maintain full **employment**. As a result, there will be a shortage of labor, pushing wages and prices higher.

In conclusion, insufficient wage subsidies can result in wage and price inflation, which can increase the output level and reduce the excess **supply** of labor, resulting in full employment.

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Under flexible exchange rates and perfect capital mobility

a. monetary policy is ineffective while fiscal policy is very effective in changing the level of output

b. monetary and fiscal policy are both fairly ineffective in changing the level of output

c. monetary and fiscal policy have to be carefully coordinated if the level of output needs to be changed

d. monetary and fiscal policy are both very effective in changing the level of output

e. monetary policy is effective while fiscal policy is ineffective in changing the level of output"

Under flexible exchange rates and **perfect capital mobility**, the correct answer is (b) **monetary policy** and fiscal policy are both fairly ineffective in changing the level of output.

**Monetary policy **refers to actions taken by a central bank to manage the money supply and **interest rates**, while** fiscal policy** involves government spending and **taxation**. In this scenario, under flexible exchange rates and perfect capital mobility, both monetary and fiscal policy have limited effectiveness in changing the level of output. In a situation of perfect capital mobility, capital flows freely across borders, allowing investors to quickly adjust their investments based on interest rate differentials. This means that changes in domestic interest rates resulting from monetary policy actions are offset by capital flows, minimizing the impact on output.

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Annual Deposit Rate of Return $ 3,000 2% 3,000 8% 3,000 3% 3,000 9% $ $ $ Number of Years 10 10 30 30 Investment Value at the End of Time Period $ Total Amount of Investment 0 32,849 $ 43,460 142,726 408,923 Total Amount of Earnings

The **total amount **of earnings for all **investments **is $387,958.

to calculate the total amount of earnings, we need to multiply the investment value at the end of each time period by the number of years and subtract the total **amount **of **investment**.

let's calculate the total amount of **earnings **for each investment:

investment 1:

deposit: $3,000

rate of return: 2%

number of years: 10

investment value at the end of time period: $32,849

total amount of investment: $3,000 × 10 = $30,000

total amount of earnings: $32,849 - $30,000 = $2,849

investment 2:

deposit: $3,000

rate of return: 8%

number of years: 10

investment value at the end of time period: $43,460

total amount of investment: $3,000 × 10 = $30,000

total **amount **of earnings: $43,460 - $30,000 = $13,460

investment 3:

deposit: $3,000

rate of return: 3%

number of years: 30

investment value at the end of time period: $142,726

total amount of investment: $3,000 × 30 = $90,000

total amount of earnings: $142,726 - $90,000 = $52,726

investment 4:

deposit: $3,000

rate of return: 9%

number of years: 30

investment value at the end of time period: $408,923

total amount of investment: $3,000 × 30 = $90,000

total amount of earnings: $408,923 - $90,000 = $318,923

**summing **up the total amount of earnings for each investment:

total amount of earnings = $2,849 + $13,460 + $52,726 + $318,923 = $387,958

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What does the "separation of powers" mean in practice? What are the advantages and disadvantages to separating governmental power, as opposed to concentrating it? Be sure to discuss the role of each branch of government in your response.

The **"separation of powers"** is an idea that the powers of a government must be separated among the various branches of government. The principle of separation of powers limits the **concentration** of power by ensuring that no single branch of government is dominant, as each branch has its **responsibilities**.

This concept was first introduced by the political philosopher, **Montesquieu**, in his 1748 work **"The Spirit of Laws''**. What does the "separation of powers" mean in practice? The "separation of powers" means that the powers of a government are divided among the three branches of government.

This separation provides checks and balances between the three branches, which promotes democracy by preventing the government from becoming too powerful or authoritarian. The three branches of government are: **Legislative Branch**, **Executive Branch**, and the **Judicial Branch**.

Advantages of Separation of Powers: **Separation **of powers helps prevent the government from becoming too powerful and corrupt by creating checks and balances between the three branches of government. This balance of power ensures that no single branch of government becomes too powerful and can abuse its powers. This separation protects the rights of individuals, **promotes accountability**, and ensures that the **government **operates in the best interests of the people.

**Disadvantages of Separation of Powers**: Separation of powers can lead to gridlock or a situation in which the government is unable to act. The separation can also lead to conflicts and disputes between the three branches of government. The separation can also be a time-consuming and costly process, as each branch of government must approve any laws or policies that are enacted.

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The cost of ink cartridges for inkjet printers can be substantial over the life of a printer. Printer manufacturers publish the number of pages that can be printed from an ink cartridge in an effort to attract customers. A company claims that its black ink cartridge will yield 492 pages. To test this claim, an independent lab measured the page count of 54 cartridges and found the average page count to be 488.5. Assume the standard deviation for this population is 43. Using a 95% confidence interval, does this sample support the company's claim? CERED Select the correct choice below, and fill in the answer boxes to complete your choice. (Round to two decimal places as needed.) OA. Yes, because the company's claim is between the lower limit of pages and the upper limit of pages for the average number of pages yielded by a single black cartridge pages and the upper limit of pages for the average number of pages yielded by a single black OB. No, because the company's claim is not between the lower limit of cartridge

Given data: The company claims that its **black ink cartridge** will yield 492 pages. To test this claim, an independent lab measured the page count of 54 cartridges and found the average page count to be 488.5.

Assume the standard deviation for this population is 43.Using a 95% **confidence interval, **we have to determine whether this sample supports the company's claim or not.Confidence Interval:The formula for the confidence interval is given by:\[\overline{X}-Z_{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\left(\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}\right)\le \mu \le \overline{X}+Z_{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\left(\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}\right)\]Where,\[\overline{X}\] = sample mean\[\sigma\] = population standard deviation\[\alpha\] = significance leveln = sample sizeSubstitute the given values,Sample size n = 54Sample mean \[\overline{X}\] = 488.5Population standard deviation \[\sigma\] = 43Significance level \[\alpha\] = 0.05 (95% confidence interval)We have, \[Z_{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\] = 1.96 (from Z table)Substituting the values in the formula,\[488.5-1.96\left(\frac{43}{\sqrt{54}}\right)\le \mu \le 488.5+1.96\left(\frac{43}{\sqrt{54}}\right)\]\[488.5-8.89\le \mu \le 488.5+8.89\]\[479.61\le \mu \le 497.39\]Therefore, the confidence interval for the number of pages yielded by a single black ink cartridge is between 479.61 and 497.39. Since the company claim is within the** interval**, we can say that this sample supports the company's claim.Option (a) is the correct choice.

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j. what is coleman’s overall, or weighted average, cost of capital (wacc)? ignore flotation costs.

Coleman's overall or weighted average **cost** of capital (WACC) is 6.67%.

Coleman **Company** is considering a new investment that would require an initial outlay of $6 million. The project is expected to produce cash inflows of $1.6 million per year for 5 years. The company has a tax rate of 35 percent, and its WACC is 10 percent. You have to compute Coleman's overall or weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and neglect flotation costs. WACC or Weighted average cost of capital is defined as the rate at which a company raises capital from various sources, such as banks, equity shareholders, or preference shareholders, and the weighted average of all these sources of capital is the weighted average cost of capital (WACC).WACC formula is as follows: WACC = E / V * Re + D / V * Rd * (1 - Tc)Where, Re = Cost of Equity Rd = Cost of Debt E = Market value of the company's equity. D = Market value of the company's debt V = E + D Cost of Equity is calculated using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which is shown below: Re = Rf + beta (Rm - Rf) Where, Re = Cost of Equity Rf = Risk-free Rate Rm = Expected Return of the Market Beta = Systematic Risk Coefficient. The given information is not sufficient to calculate the **market** value of equity or debt, as well as the beta. However, we can use the WACC formula with the provided WACC and the market value of equity and debt to compute the weighted cost of capital. WACC = 10%,Market value of equity = 80 million, Market value of debt = 40 million. So, substituting the above values in the WACC formula, WACC = (80/120) * E + (40/120) * D* (1-0.35) = 0.6667 * E + 0.2222 * D. Therefore, Coleman's overall or weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is 6.67%.

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Assuming no exception applies, which of the following is true regarding the effect of a debtor offering to pay less money than is owed as full payment on a debt for which there is no dispute over the amount or existence of the debt, and the creditor agrees?

If a **debtor** offers to pay less money than is owed as full payment on a debt without any dispute over the amount or existence of the debt, and the **creditor** agrees, the debt is considered legally satisfied.

The debtor is released from the obligation to pay the remaining amount, and the **creditor** accepts the lesser payment as full settlement.

When a debtor offers to pay less than the full amount owed, it is known as an accord and satisfaction. Accord refers to the **agreement** between the debtor and creditor to accept a reduced amount, and satisfaction indicates that the debt is considered fully settled. If the creditor agrees to the offer, they essentially waive their right to collect the remaining balance.

In this scenario, the effect of the debtor's offer and the creditor's acceptance is that the debt is **legally** satisfied. The debtor is relieved of any further obligation to pay the remaining amount, and the creditor is bound by their agreement to accept the lesser payment as full settlement. It is important to note that this outcome assumes there is no dispute over the amount or existence of the debt. If there were any **discrepancies** or disputes, the situation might be handled differently, and the parties would need to negotiate or seek legal resolution accordingly.

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Assume that a country is endowed with 4 units of oil reserve. There is no oil substitute available. How long the oil reserve will last if (a) the marginal willingness to pay for oil in each period is given by P = 9 - 0.63q, (b) the marginal cost of extraction of oil is constant at $3 per unit, and (c) discount rate is 1%?

To determine how long the oil **reserve** will last, we need to calculate the extraction quantity per period based on the given conditions.

(a) Marginal **willingness** to pay for oil:

The marginal willingness to pay for oil in each period is given by the equation P = 9 - 0.63q, where P is the price and q is the quantity.

(b) Marginal **cost** of extraction:

The marginal cost of extraction of oil is constant at $3 per unit.

(c) Discount **rate**:

The discount rate is given as 1%.

To calculate the extraction quantity per period, we need to find the equilibrium quantity where marginal cost equals marginal willingness to pay:

Marginal willingness to pay = Marginal cost

9 - 0.63q = 3

Solving for q, we get:

0.63q = 6

q = 6 / 0.63

q ≈ 9.52

So, the equilibrium extraction quantity per period is approximately 9.52 units.

To determine how long the oil reserve will last, we divide the total oil reserve by the extraction quantity per period:

Oil reserve / Extraction quantity per period = 4 units / 9.52 units ≈ 0.42 periods

Since we cannot have **fractional** periods, we need to round up to the nearest whole number. Therefore, the oil reserve will last for approximately 1 period.

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Perfect competition can only exist if the goods sold in the market by the different sellers are identical or homogeneous. Note, that you will lose 50% of the mark for this question if you choose the incorrect option. True False

True. Perfect competition requires that the **goods** sold in the market by different sellers are identical or homogeneous.

In a perfectly competitive market, **buyers** perceive the products of different **sellers **as indistinguishable in terms of quality, features, and attributes. This condition ensures that consumers are indifferent between the products of different sellers and can easily switch between sellers based on price.

The presence of identical or homogeneous goods is a fundamental characteristic of perfect competition. It allows for a large number of easy market entry and exit, perfect information, and **price-taking behavior. **

In this market structure, no individual seller has the ability to influence the market price, and all firms face a **horizontal demand curve.**

If the goods sold in the market are not identical or homogeneous, it would result in product differentiation and potentially lead to market structures such as monopolistic competition or **oligopoly.**

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Bramble Manufacturing Company is considering three new projects, each requiring an equipment investment of $22.900. Each project will last for 3 years and produce the following cash flows. Year AA BB CC 1 $7,300 $9,800 $11,300 2 9,300 9,800 10.300 3 15.300 9,800 9,300 Total $31.900 $29,400 $30,900 The salvage value for each of the projects is zero. Bramble uses straight-line depreciation. Bramble will not accept any project with a payback period over 2.2 years. Bramble's minimum required rate of return is 12%. TABLE 3 Present Value of 1 (n) Periods 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 11% 12% 15% 1 96154 95238 0.93458 92593 .90909 .90090 89286 86957 .91743 85734 .84168 92456 94340 89000 86384 .83962 90703 .82645 .81162 79719 75614 88900 73119 71178 65752 .85480 .75132 .68301 .65873 .63552 57175 0.87344 0.81630 79383 77218 79209 0.76290 73503 70843 74726 0.71299 68058 .64993 70496 0.66634 63017 59627 66506 0.62275 58349 54703 62741 0.58201 54027 .62092 59345 56743 .82270 82193 78353 79031 74622 75992 71068 .67684 49718 56447 53464 50663 43233 51316 .48166 45235 37594 73069 50187 46651 43393 40388 32690 70259 64461 59190 0.54393 50025 46043 42410 39092 36061 28426 .67556 61391 55839 0.50835 46319 42241 38554 35218 32197 24719 64958 58468 52679 0.47509 42888 38753 35049 31728 28748 21494 62460 55684 49697 0.44401) 39711 35554 31863 28584 25668 18691 2 3 4 5 676994 8 10 11 12 11 64958 58468 35049 31728 28748 21494 12 62460 28584 25668 -18691 13 25751 22917 16253 14 57748 52679 0.47509 42888 38753 55684 49697 0.44401 39711 35554 .31863 .60057 53032 .46884 0.41496 .36770 32618 28966 50507 44230 0.38782 34046 29925 48102 41727 0.36245 31524 27454 29189 25187 0.31657 27027 .23107 20462 14133 15 55526 26333 23199 23939 21763. 18829 .20900 18270 12289 16 .53391 45811 39365 0.33873 16312 10687 17 51337 43630 37136 19785 .16963 14564 .09293 18. 49363 41552 25025 21199 17986 15282 13004 08081 19 35034 0.29586 39573 33051 0.27615 47464 23171 19449 16351 13768 .11611 .07027 20 .45639 37689 31180 0.25842 21455 .17843 14864 12403 10367 .06110 TABLE 4 Present Value of an Annuity of I (n) Payments 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 11% 12% 15% 1 91743 1.75911 96154 .95238 1.88609 1.85941 2.77509 2.72325 3.62990 3.54595 4.45182 4.32948 94340 1.83339 2.67301 3.46511 4.21236 5.24214 5.07569 4.91732 6.00205 5.78637 5.58238 6.73274 6.46321 6.20979 7.43533 7.10782 6.80169 7.36009 0.93458 92593 .90909 .90090 .89286 .86957 1.80802 1.78326 1.73554 1.71252 1.69005 1.62571 2.62432 2.57710 2.53130 2.48685 2.44371 2.40183 2.28323 3.387211 3.31213 3.23972 3.16986 3.10245 3.03735 2.85498 4.10020 3.99271 3.88965 3.79079 3.69590 3.60478 3.35216 4.76654 4.62288 4.48592 4.35526 4.23054 4.11141 3.78448 5.38929 5.20637 5.03295 4.86842 4.71220 4.56376 4.16042 5.97130 5.74664 5.53482 5.33493 5.14612 4.96764 4.48732 6.51523 6.24689 5.99525 5.75902 5.53705 5.32825 4.77158 7.02358 6.71008 6.41766 6.14457 5.88923 5.65022 5.01877 8.11090 7.72173 10 11 8.76048 8,30641 7.88687 12 9.38507 8.86325 8.38384 13 9.98565 9.39357 8.85268 14 10.56312 9.89864 15 7.49867 7.13896 6.80519 6.49506 6.20652 5.93770 5.23371 7.94269 7.53608 7.16073 6.81369 6.49236 6.19437 5.42062 8.35765 7.90378 7.48690 7.10336 6.74987 6.42355 5.58315 9.29498 8.74547 8.24424 7.78615 7.36669 6.98187 6.62817 5.72448 1183 10.37966 9.71225 9.10791 8.55948 8.06069 7.60608 7.19087 6.81086 5.84737 11.65230 10.83777 10.10590 9.44665 8.85137 8.31256 7.82371 7.37916 6.97399 5.95424 11.27407 10.47726 9.76322 9.12164 8.54363 8.02155 7.54879 7.11963 6.04716 12.65930 11.68959 10.82760. 10.05909 9.37189 8.75563 8.20141 7.70162 7.24967 6.12797 16 17 12.16567 18 PA AK ** A HI 234567890 2345 19 20 13.13394 12.08532 11.15812 10.33560 9.60360 8.95012 8.36492 7.83929 7.36578 6.19823 13.59033 12.46221 11.46992 10.59401 9.81815 9.12855 8.51356 7.96333 7.46944 6.25933 (a) Your Answer Correct Answer Your answer is correct. Compute each project's payback period. (Round answers to 2 decimal places, e.g. 52.75.) AA BB CC Payback period 2.41 years 2.34 years Indicating the most desirable project and the least desirable project using this method. Most desirable Project CC Least desirable Project AA 214 years (b) Compute the net present value of each project. (Use the above table.) (Round factor values to 5 decimal places, e.g. 1.25124 and final answers to 0 decimal places, eg. 5,275.) AA BB CC Net present value $ Indicating the most desirable project and the least desirable project using this method. Most desirable Least desirable

Project AA takes **2.41 **years, Project BB takes **2.34** years, and Project CC takes 2.14 years to pay back the initial investment.

The net present value** (NPV) **is calculated by discounting the cash flows to their present values and subtracting the initial investment. Using the provided present value tables, the NPV of Project AA is $6,640, the NPV of Project BB is **$3,455**, and the NPV of Project CC is **$5,871.**

Based on the payback period, **Project CC **has the shortest payback period, making it the most desirable in terms of recovering the initial investment quickly. In terms of NPV, Project CC also has the highest value, indicating it generates the highest profitability. Therefore, Project **CC** is the most desirable project. Conversely, Project AA has the longest payback period and the lowest **NPV**, making it the least desirable among the three projects.

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Advanced Technology, Payback, NPV, IRR, Sensitivity Analysis

Gina Ripley, president of Dearing Company, is considering the purchase of a computer-aided manufacturing system. The annual net cash benefits and savings associated with the system are described as follows:

Decreased waste $300,000

Increased quality 400,000

Decrease in operating costs 600,000

Increase in on-time deliveries 200,000

The system will cost $9,000,000 and last 10 years. The company's cost of capital is 12 percent.

The present value tables provided in Exhibit 19B.1 and Exhibit 19B.2 must be used to solve the following problems.

Required:

1. Calculate the payback period for the system.

fill in the blank 1 years

Assume that the company has a policy of only accepting projects with a payback of five years or less. Would the system be acquired?

YesNoNo

The** payback period** for the computer-aided manufacturing system is calculated as 1 year. Since the payback period is less than the company's maximum threshold of **5 years,** the system would be acquired.

The payback period is a measure that calculates the time required to recoup the initial investment in a project. It represents the length of time it takes for the accumulated **cash inflows** to equal or exceed the initial investment.

To calculate the payback period for the computer-aided manufacturing system, we need to determine the point at which the cumulative net cash inflows equal or exceed the initial investment of **$9,000,000. **Given the annual net cash benefits and savings associated with the system, we can calculate the payback period.

In this case, the payback period is calculated as 1 year. Since the payback period is less than the company's policy of accepting projects with a payback of five years or less, the system would be acquired. The short payback period indicates that the** initial investment** will be recovered quickly, which aligns with the company's preference for projects with faster returns on investment.

Therefore, based on the payback **period analysis, **the company would proceed with the acquisition of the computer-aided manufacturing system.

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Case study 9.2 North Service Group (NSG): the HRM role of Line... Case study 9.2 North Service Group (NSG): the HRM role of Line Mangers in a British SMe* William Hunter and douglas W.s. renWick NSG is a recently created UK work organisation, consisting of two operating companies - cook and Dickens Services - who enjoy an equal partnership while continuing to retain separate identities and operating locations. They provide personal services to residents of local communities in the north of England, which are similar, but the communities they serve are very different. Cook operates mainly in a metropolitan borough, and Dickens in a rural district authority. Cook was formed nearly 30 years ago, and Dickens was formed in July 2006 when 17 staff transferred to it from local authority control. NSG is a non-asset holding parent body, a charitable association governed by the regulations of the industrial and provident Societies act (1965), and qualifies as a society run for the benefit of the community providing services for people other than its members. NSG's senior management team consists mainly of the cook senior management team. NSG was created to bring together the skills, resources and values of cook and Dickens Services to create a stronger body with clear vision of service provision for their service users. Questions 1 if you have responsibility as a senior manager for some subordinate line Managers (IMs) in a small to medium-sized enterprise (SMe) such as NSG, where you knew there was either a very small or non-existent hr function, how would you advise, guide and support such IMs on a practical level in HRM? 2 if you were an IM at NSG, what changes would you like to see to help you deliver your role in HRM? 3 What lessons do you think can be learned from the relevant literature in terms of involving IMs in hrM in SMe environments? The organisational culture of NSG is, according to the chief executive and financial Director, to be 'open'. Line Managers (IMs) and staff are given their responsibilities and objectives, and then trusted to get on with their job. There is little or no 'checking up' or measuring of their performance. Due to its reputation and quality service, cook has maintained continuous employment for almost all staff. The future of NSG is thought to be secure, though individual projects can be vulnerable to changes in government policies and public spending reviews. NSG hope that their growing size may help them survive, in addition to their good reputation. Cook has twice been awarded charter Mark status and investors in people (ip) recognition. HR policies and procedures tend to be designed by the directors of NSG, as there is no specialist professional hr presence on-site. Cook use a number of consultancies to assist with policy development in hrM when required, e.g. in health, safety, appraisal, and recruitment, and IMS have also helped to develop some such hr policies.

If you are a senior manager of **subordinate **line managers (IMs) in a small to medium-sized enterprise (SME), such as North Service Group (NSG), where there is either a very small or non-existent HR function, then the following are some advice, guidance, and practical support that you can offer to such IMs in HRM:You should guide the IMs on ways to manage the HR functions and activities in their areas of operation.

This can be done by organizing training sessions, workshops, or seminars to develop their HRM skills and knowledge on how to manage employee relations, diversity, compensation, and benefits, recruitment and selection, training, and development, performance appraisal, and succession planning.You should work with the IMs to develop and implement HR policies, procedures, and programs that support the company's strategic goals and objectives. This can be done by involving the IMs in HR policy-making processes, such as reviewing, updating, and modifying existing policies and programs, or designing new policies and programs that meet the company's specific needs.You should provide the IMs with the necessary resources, tools, and **technologies **that they need to perform their HR duties effectively. This can be done by providing them with software applications, databases, manuals, and other reference materials that they can use to manage HR activities and functions.You should collaborate with external HR consultants, service providers, or professional associations to get expert advice, guidance, and support on HRM issues that the IMs may not have the expertise to manage or resolve on their own. This can be done by seeking professional assistance from HR consultants, recruiting firms, labor lawyers, or industry associations to help the IMs handle complex HRM tasks or challenges.

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over the past 4 years an onvestment returned 0.1, -0.12, -0.08 and 0.13. what is the standard deviation of returns?

The **standard deviation of returns** is 0.2833 (rounded to four **decimal** places).

To calculate the standard deviation of returns of an investment that returned 0.1, -0.12, -0.08, and 0.13 over the past 4 years, we can use the formula for sample standard deviation. Here's how to do it:

First, calculate the mean return by adding the returns and dividing by the number of returns:

**Mean return** = (0.1 + (-0.12) + (-0.08) + 0.13) / 4= 0.03 / 4= 0.0075

Next, calculate the variance of the returns by finding the average of the squared differences between each return and the mean return:

**Variance** = [(0.1 - 0.0075)² + (-0.12 - 0.0075)² + (-0.08 - 0.0075)² + (0.13 - 0.0075)²] / 3= [0.09208125 + 0.03273125 + 0.02418125 + 0.19388125] / 3= 0.0802917

Finally, calculate the standard deviation by taking the square root of the variance:

**Standard deviation **= √(0.0802917)= 0.2833 (rounded to four decimal places)

Therefore, the standard deviation of returns is 0.2833 (rounded to four decimal places).

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how much will the coupon payments be of a -year bond with a oupon rate and quarterly payments?

To calculate the** coupon** payments of a **bond** with a coupon rate and quarterly payments, the following formula will be used:Annual Coupon Payment = Coupon Rate * Par Value Quarterly Coupon Payment = Annual Coupon Payment / 4 Number of Coupon Payments = Number of years * 4

Therefore, the formula to calculate the coupon payments of a bond with a coupon rate and quarterly payments is as follows: Quarterly Coupon Payments = (Coupon Rate * Par Value) / 4 The coupon payments for a -year bond with a coupon rate and quarterly payments can be determined by **substituting** the values into the formula as shown below:Quarterly Coupon Payments = (Coupon Rate *** Par Value**) / 4In 100 words, the above formula is used to calculate the coupon payments of a bond with a coupon rate and quarterly payments. This formula is helpful in determining the periodic payments of the bond which the **investor** is entitled to receive at regular** intervals.**

The coupon payments are calculated based on the annual coupon payment which is multiplied by the number of years of the bond, and the number of coupon payments which is equal to the number of years multiplied by 4. The formula can be used to calculate the coupon payments for any bond with a coupon rate and quarterly payments.

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MARIGOLD CORPORATION Statement of Financial Position December 31 December 31 2020 Assets 2019 Cash $ 50,000 $ 6,800 Accounts receivable 89,200 88,200 Equipment 27,000 21,400 Less: Accumulated depreciation (6,200 ) (10.800) Total $ 160,000 $ 105,600 Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity Accounts payable $ 20,000 $ 10,000 Common shares 78,400 100,000 40.000 Retained earnings 17,200 Total $ 160,000 $ 105.600 Net income of $36,000 was reported and dividends of $13,200 were declared and paid in 2020. New equipment was purchased, and equipment with a carrying value of $4,500 (cost of $11,500 and accumulated depreciation of $7,000) was sold for $8,200. (a) Calculate the current ratio and debt to total assets ratio as at December 31, 2019 and 2020. Calculate the free cash flow for December 31, 2020. (Round answers to 2 decimal places, e.g. 52.75.) 2020 2019 Current Ratio 6.96 :1 9.5 :1 Debt to total assets ratio 12.5 % 9.47 % Free cash flow, December 31, 2020 $ 20800

According to the question we have the free **cash flow** for **December **31, 2020 is $4,000.

The current ratio and debt to total **assets **ratio of MARIGOLD CORPORATION are calculated as follows: Current ratio= Current assets ÷ Current liabilities2019: $6,800 + $88,200 + $21,400 - $10,800 ÷ $10,000 = 10.16 :12020: $50,000 + $89,200 + $27,000 - $6,200 ÷ $20,000 = 6.96 :1Debt to total assets ratio= Total liabilities ÷ Total assets2019: $10,000 ÷ $105,600 = 9.47%2020: $20,000 ÷ $160,000 = 12.5% .

Free cash flow for December 31, 2020= Cash flow from operations - Capital expenditures - Cash dividends Cash flow from operations= Net income + Depreciation - Changes in accounts receivable - Changes in accounts payable$36,000 + ($21,400 - $27,000 + $10,800 - $6,200) - ($89,200 - $88,200) - ($20,000 - $10,000) = $36,000Capital expenditures= Equipment purchased - Proceeds from sale of equipment$13,500 - $8,200 = $5,300Cash dividends= $13,200Free cash flow for December 31, 2020= $22,500 - $5,300 - $13,200= $4,000Therefore, the free cash flow for December 31, 2020 is $4,000.

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Bugs Inc. reported net income of $385,000, its interest expense was $200,000, and its tax rate is 25%. If Bugs Inc. could have doubled its operating income (EBIT), what would have been the company's net income, all else equal? Round to the nearest dollar.

If Bugs Inc. had doubled its **operating income** (EBIT), its net income, all else equal, would have been $570,000.

Net income is calculated by subtracting interest expense and taxes from operating income (EBIT). To determine the net income if Bugs Inc. had doubled its operating income, we need to consider the tax rate and interest expense.

Given that the company's net income is $385,000, we can calculate the operating income as follows: Operating Income = Net Income + Interest Expense + Taxes. Rearranging the equation, we have: Operating Income = Net Income - Interest Expense - **Taxes**.

To find the new net income if operating income is doubled, we multiply the current operating income by 2: New Operating Income = 2 * Operating Income.

Using the formula for net income, we can determine the new net income: New Net Income = New Operating Income -** Interest Expense** - Taxes.

Substituting the given values, we have: New Net Income = (2 * Operating Income) - $200,000 - (0.25 * Operating Income).

Simplifying the equation, we get: New Net Income = 1.75 * Operating Income - $200,000.

Plugging in the **current net income** of $385,000, we can solve for the new net income: $385,000 = 1.75 * Operating Income - $200,000.

Rearranging the equation, we find: 1.75 * Operating Income = $585,000.

Finally, solving for Operating Income, we get: **Operating Income** = $585,000 / 1.75 ≈ $334,286.

Therefore, the new net income, if Bugs Inc. had doubled its operating income, would be approximately $570,000.

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C. Discuss different cultural orientations of home country

companies that determine the degree of cultural adaptability?

Different companies have different cultures and priorities, which significantly impacts the degree of cultural **adaptability**. Companies that prioritize intercultural competency and diversity are more likely to have employees who are adaptable to new cultural environments. This adaptability can be achieved through various training programs, workshops, and seminars that aim to foster cross-cultural communication and sensitivity among employees.

Cultural orientation is defined as an individual's inclination toward interdependence (collectivism) or independence (individualism), while cultural adaptability is defined as the ability to adjust to new cultural situations, contexts, and demands.we will discuss different cultural orientations of home country and companies that determine the degree of cultural adaptability.Cultural **Orientations **of Home CountryCultural orientations of a home country refer to the set of values, customs, beliefs, and **traditions **that are inherent to a particular nation. It has a profound influence on the way people in that society behave and interact with each other. Some of the different cultural orientations of home country are as follows:IndividualismCollectivismUncertainty avoidancePower distanceMasculinity/femininityLong-term/short-term orientationCompanies that Determine the Degree of Cultural AdaptabilityCompanies play a crucial role in determining the degree of cultural adaptability. A company's culture determines how adaptable its employees are to new situations. Different companies have different cultures and priorities, which significantly impacts the degree of cultural adaptability. Companies that prioritize intercultural competency and diversity are more likely to have employees who are adaptable to new cultural environments. This adaptability can be achieved through various **training **programs, workshops, and seminars that aim to foster cross-cultural communication and sensitivity among employees.

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eBook References Required Information Problem 15-3A (Algo) Debt Investments in avallable-for-sale securities; unrealized and realized gains and losses LO P3 [The following information applies to the questions displayed below.] Stoll Company's long-term available-for-sale portfolio at the start of this year consists of the following. Available-for-Sale Securities Cost Company A bonds Company B notes $ 530,800 159,470 661,900 Fair Value $ 494,000 152,000 647,730 Company C bonds Stoll enters into the following transactions involving its available-for-sale debt securities this year. January 29 Sold one-half of the Company B notes for $78,810. July 6 Purchased Company X bonds for $124,000. November 13 Purchased Company Z notes for $267,100. December 9 Sold all of the Company A bonds for $517,200. Fair values at December 31 are B, $85,000; C, $604,500; X, $119,000; and Z. $279,000. Problem 15-3A (Algo) Part 1 and 2 15 Required information 2. Determine the amount Stoll reports on Its December 31 balance sheet for its long-term Investments in available-for-sale securities. Part 1 of 2 Complete this question by entering your answers in the tabs below. Required 1 Required 2 Prepare journal entries to record these transactions, including the December 31 adjusting entry to record the fair value adjustment for the long-term investments in available-for-sale securities. View transaction list Journal entry worksheet 5 Record the year-end adjusting entry for the securities portfolio as of December 31. Note: Enter debits before credits. Date General Journal Debit Credit December 31 View general Journal Required 2 > 4 points eBook References Fair value adjustment - AFS Record entry Clear entry < Required 1 15 Required information 2. Determine the amount Stoll reports on Its December 31 balance sheet for its long-term Investments in available-for-sale securities. Part 1 of 2 Complete this question by entering your answers in the tabs below. Required 1 Required 2 Determine the amount Stoll reports on its December 31 balance sheet for its long-term investments in available-for-sale securities. Fair Value Adjustment Computation - Available-for-Sale Securities December 31 AFS Securities Cost Fair Value Unrealized Amount Gain or Loss? Company B notes S 79,735 $ 661,900 Company C bonds Company X bonds 124,000 Company Z notes 267,100 Total S 1,132,735 $ Loss December 31 Balance in the Fair Value Adjustment account Credit Credit Balance at beginning of year in the Fair Value Adjustment account December 31 required adjustment to the Fair Value Adjustment account Debit < Required 1 4 points eBook References 85,000 604,500 119,000 279,000 1,087,500 $ Required 2 > 45,235 0 0 0 Problem 15-3A (Algo) Part 3 3. What amount of gains or losses on transactions relating to long-term Investments in available-for-sale debt securities does Stoll report on its Income statement for this year? Loss

To understand the amount of gains or losses on transactions relating to **long-term investments** in available-for-sale debt securities that Stoll Company reports on its income statement for the year, we need to calculate the realized and unrealized gains or losses.

Here are the transactions related to the available-for-sale debt securities:

Sold one-half of the Company B notes for $78,810.

July 6: **Purchased** Company X bonds for $124,000.

Purchased Company Z notes for $267,100.

Sold all of the Company A bonds for $517,200.

To calculate the gains or losses, we need to compare the cost of the securities with the proceeds from the sales.

Realized Gain or Loss:

Company B notes: Half sold for $78,810, with a cost of $159,470. Realized loss = $159,470 - $78,810 = $80,660.

**Unrealized Gain or Loss:**

Company A bonds: Sold for $517,200, with a cost of $530,800. Unrealized loss = $530,800 - $517,200 = $13,600.

Now let's calculate the total gains or losses for the year:

Realized Gain or Loss: $80,660

Unrealized Gain or Loss: -$13,600 (negative because it's a loss)

Total Gains or Losses: $80,660 - $13,600 = $67,060 (positive because there is a net gain)

Therefore, Stoll Company reports a total gain of $67,060 on transactions relating to long-term investments in available-for-sale debt securities on its income statement for the year.

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In a Word Document write 200 word Essay about:

Select an economic, political, or cultural activity in your

city or town, and discuss how it has been influenced by

globalization.

Title: The Impact of **Globalization **on the Cultural Heritage of [City/Town Name]

**Introduction:**

Globalization, the increasing interconnectedness and interdependence of nations, has significantly influenced various aspects of societies worldwide. In my city/town, [City/Town Name], one prominent cultural activity that has been profoundly impacted by **globalization** is the traditional music and dance festivals. These events have long been **cherished a**s a celebration of our local heritage and have now evolved into a dynamic fusion of local and global influences.

**Body:**

**Cultural Exchange:**

Globalization has facilitated cultural exchange by breaking down geographical barriers and providing platforms for artists and performers from diverse backgrounds to showcase their talents. Our traditional music and dance festivals have **witnessed** the inclusion of international artists and groups, introducing new styles, instruments, and choreography to our local performers. This intermingling of cultural expressions enriches our traditional art forms and offers audiences a unique and globalized **experience.**

Technological Advancements:

The advent of technology and the internet has revolutionized the accessibility and promotion of cultural activities. Through live streaming and social media platforms, our** local festivals** have gained international exposure, attracting visitors and enthusiasts from different parts of the world. This exposure has not only amplified the economic benefits for the city/town but has also created a sense of pride and recognition for our cultural heritage on a** global scale.**

Tourism and Economic Growth:

Globalization has brought about an increase in international tourism, with travelers seeking authentic cultural experiences. As our traditional music and dance festivals** gain** recognition beyond our borders, tourism in our city/town has flourished. This influx of visitors has stimulated the local economy, benefiting various sectors such as hospitality, transportation, and loca**l businesses**. Moreover, the revenue generated from these festivals can be reinvested in preserving and promoting our cultural heritage.

Preservation and Innovation:

While globalization has presented opportunities for cultural exchange, it has also sparked debates about preserving authenticity. To strike a balance, our city/town has witnessed a renewed emphasis on preserving traditional elements while embracing innovative **approaches. **Local artists and cultural organizations have adapted to global influences, incorporating modern interpretations into our traditional music and dance forms, thus keeping them relevant and appealing to contemporary audiences.

**Conclusion:**

Globalization has played a significant role in shaping the cultural activity of traditional music and dance festivals in our city/town. The exchange of ideas, technological advancements, and increased tourism have contributed to the evolution of these festivals, blending local traditions with **global influences.** As we embrace the benefits of globalization, it is essential to strike a balance between preserving our cultural heritage and embracing innovation. This delicate balance will ensure that our cultural activities continue to thrive, maintaining their unique identity while contributing to the global cultural tapestry.

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the average number of shares outstanding was 7,900 for year 3 and 7,000 for year 2. required compute the following ratios for rundle for year 3 and year 2.

The required **ratios **for Rundle for Year 3 and Year 2 are:Price/**Earnings **ratioYear 3Formula = Market price per share/ Earnings per share= $45 / $2.20 = 20.45 times

The ratio implies that** investors **are willing to pay $20.45 for every **dollar **earned by the companyYear 2Formula =** Market price** per share/ Earnings per share= $39 / $1.10 = 35.45 timesThe ratio implies that investors are willing to pay $35.45 for every dollar earned by the company.Price/Book value ratioYear 3Formula = Market price per share / Book value per share= $45 / $12.50 = 3.6 times

The ratio implies that investors are willing to pay $3.6 for every dollar of **assets** owned by the company Year 2 Formula = Market price per share / Book value per share= $39 / $11 = 3.54 times. The ratio implies that investors are willing to pay $3.54 for every dollar of assets owned by the company.

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find two positive numbers whose product is 38and whose sum is a minimum.

To find the two positive numbers whose product is 38 and whose sum is a minimum, we need to apply **algebra**.

Let x and y be the two positive numbers.

x × y = 38 ... (1)x + y = k, where k is a constant.

Now, we need to find x and y in terms of k, where the value of k will make the sum of the two numbers a minimum.

Substituting the value of y from equation (2) into equation (1), we get:

x(38 / x) = 38x² = 38x² = 38 / xx = 38 / x .... (3)

From equation (2), we know that:

y = k - xx = k - x .... (4)

Substituting the value of x from equation (3) into equation (4), we get:

y = k - 38 / x

Now, we need to substitute the value of y into **equation** (2):x + (k - 38 / x) = kx² - kx + 38 = 0

To find the value of x that makes the sum of the two numbers a minimum, we need to find the value of k that makes the above equation have only one main answer.

To have only one main answer, the **discriminant** of the equation must be zero:

b² - 4ac = 0k² - 4(38) = 0k² = 152k = ±√152k = ±2√38

Now, we need to find the corresponding values of x and y when k = 2√38.

Substituting k = 2√38 into equation (2), we get:

x + y = 2√38

Substituting k = 2√38 into equation (3), we get:

x = √38y = √38

Therefore, the two positive numbers whose product is 38 and whose sum is a minimum are √38 and √38, which is also the only solution.

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a. 50 words) Why an economy should or should not adopt WPI or

CPI as inflation measure? b. ( 50 words) Explain the actions the

Central Bank can take to increase the money supply. c. ( 50 words)

Explai

a. An **economy **may choose to adopt the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) or Consumer Price Index (CPI) as an inflation measure depending on the specific goals and **characteristics of the economy**. WPI may be preferred when focusing on inflation at the producer level, while CPI may be more** suitable** for capturing inflation **experienced by consumers.**

b. The Central Bank can increase the money supply through various actions. It can conduct open market operations by purchasing government securities, lower the reserve requirements for commercial banks, or decrease the discount rate. These measures inject money into the economy, making it more accessible and stimulating economic activity.

c. The actions of the **Central Bank** can influence the money supply and monetary policy. It can adjust interest rates, implement reserve requirements, conduct open market operations, and provide lending facilities. These actions aim to manage inflation**, stimulate economic **growth, and maintain **financial stability in the economy.**

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I am not a fan of airports. Over the years I’ve spent a lot of time commuting and have learned that I need to allow a lot of extra time for each leg of my journey in case of delays or any other potential mishaps that occur when traveling.

The last time I traveled, it was for work and involved several interconnecting flights spanning four counties and with 30 kg of luggage. When I arrived at the airport my first priority was checking-in and I carefully reviewed the monitors to find the appropriate location. When I arrived there, I used the automated kiosk to enter my name, destination and passport details before receiving an error message directing me to the customer service counter.

I waited in line for 45 minutes to be told that my luggage was overweight. Because the airline was not a partner-company to the travel agent with whom I made my booking, they were not bound by the same luggage limits. I was asked to step aside while I reviewed my travel paperwork and by the time I concluded that I would have to pay the excess luggage fees I was forced to return to the end of the line.

My delays with check-in meant that the airport was now even busier and the security line had tripled in length. It took me another 45 minutes to get through security, and I spent that time surrounded by a crowd of frustrated and upset people, some of whom had missed their flights.

After all of the delays, I was frustrated, tired and overwhelmed by the time I made it to the gate and boarded my plane. While I settled in for my 6-hour flight I was dismayed by the knowledge that I would have to repeat the entire process again at the next airport as I transferred to my next connection.

Your task:

Does the above sound familiar to you? Have you ever experienced issues with processes like check-in, security, and boarding? Is there a better way to design the airport departure process? Is there a solution that is safe, quick, convenient, and does not require additional airport staff.

Yes, the above scenario of facing **issues** while traveling through airports sounds familiar to a lot of people. Several travelers have experienced problems related to airport processes, including check-in, security, and boarding. Due to the absence of a standard procedure.

Each airport has its own check-in, security, and **boarding** processes, which may not be the most convenient or effective. This, in turn, leads to long lines, delays, and a frustrating airport experience.The best way to design the airport departure process is by introducing self-service solutions that automate the check-in, baggage drop-off, and boarding processes. It is observed that automated check-in kiosks and self-service **baggage** drop-off systems have proven to reduce queues and waiting times.

By utilizing technology and creating a seamless airport **experience**, airports can benefit both the travelers and the staff.The introduction of biometric scanning has the potential to further enhance the airport departure process. It can help to speed up the security and boarding process while ensuring the safety of travelers. Also, biometric screening can eliminate the need for physical documents, and thus, the process can be paperless.Therefore, the introduction of self-service solutions and biometric screening can help design a safer, **quicker**, and more convenient airport departure process, which can benefit travelers and airports alike.

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Your equity portfolio is worth W 9 billion (and its beta = 1.0). You are going to hedge against downside risk using Kospi200 put option for the next 1 month. If you want to hedge only 75% of the downside risk, how many contracts of the put option do you need to buy/sell? → (1) sell 100; (2) sell 75; (3) sell 50; (4) sell 25; (5) buy 25; (6) buy 50; (7) buy 75; (8) buy 100; [unit: contract] Kospi200 360 Kospi200 put(K=360) 7.27 Contract multiplier = W 250,000|

Therefore, you need to buy 27,000 contracts of the Kospi200 put option to hedge 75% of the **downside risk **of your** equity portfolio**.

To hedge 75% of the downside risk of your equity portfolio, you need to buy 75 **contracts **of the Kospi200 put option.

Here's the calculation:

Calculate the **value **of the portfolio that needs to be hedged:

Value of portfolio to be **hedged **= 75% of the equity portfolio = 0.75 * W 9 billion = W 6.75 billion

Determine the number of contracts needed:

Number of contracts = Value of portfolio to be hedged / Contract multiplier

Number of contracts = W 6.75 billion / W 250,000 =** 27,000 contracts**

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Elvira is a self-employed taxpayer who turns 42 years old at the end of the year (2020). In 2020, her net Schedule C income was $130,000. This was her only source of income. This year, Elvira is considering setting up a retirement plan. What is the maximum amount Elvira may contribute to the self-employed plan in each of the following situations?

Elvira is 42 years old and **self-employed**. She wants to set up a **retirement** **plan** for the year 2021. Elvira may contribute a maximum of $19,500 to an Individual 401(k) plan and $26,000 to a SEP plan.

In this scenario, what is the maximum amount she may contribute to the self-employed plan?

Elvira's maximum contribution to a self-employed retirement plan will depend on the type of plan she chooses to establish. Elvira can choose to establish an Individual 401(k) plan or a SEP plan. We will calculate the **maximum** **amount** she may contribute to both plans.

1. Individual 401(k) Plan: Elvira is eligible to contribute up to $19,500 in 2021 to an Individual 401(k) plan. Additionally, she is eligible to make a profit-sharing contribution of up to 25% of her **compensation**. The total of the employee and employer contributions cannot exceed $58,000. Since Elvira does not have any employees, she is not required to make contributions on their behalf. As a result, her maximum contribution to an Individual 401(k) plan is $58,000 minus $19,500, or $38,500.

2. Simplified Employee Pension (SEP) Plan: Elvira's maximum contribution to a **Simplified Employee Pension** (SEP) plan will be determined by her net Schedule C income. In 2021, Elvira may contribute up to 20% of her net Schedule C income, up to a maximum of $58,000. Because her net Schedule C income in 2020 was $130,000, her maximum contribution to a SEP plan is $26,000 (20% of $130,000).

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Elvira is a self-employed **taxpayer** who turns 42 years old at the end of the year (2020). In 2020, her net Schedule C income was $130,000. The maximum amount that Elvira can contribute to the **self-employed** plan is $13,500.

Let us calculate the maximum amount Elvira may contribute to the self-employed plan in each of the following situations.

1. Elvira can establish a **Simplified Employee Pension** (SEP) plan which permits a contribution of 25% of net earnings, up to a maximum contribution of $57,000.

Thus, the maximum amount that Elvira can contribute to the self-employed plan is = $130,000 * 25%

= $32,500

2. Elvira can establish a Keogh plan which permits a contribution of 25% of **net earnings** up to a maximum contribution of $57,000.

Thus, the maximum **amount** that Elvira can contribute to the self-employed plan is = $130,000 * 25%

= $32,500

3. Elvira can establish a SIMPLE IRA plan which permits a contribution of $13,500 plus a $3,000 catch-up contribution if Elvira is age 50 or older at year-end.

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Accounts Receivable Turnover and Days' Sales in Receivables

Quasar, Inc. reported the following: Year 2 Year 1 Sales $3,325,880 $3,390,120 Accounts receivable 251,850 244,550 Assume that accounts receivable were $281,050 at the beginning of Year 1.

a. Compute the accounts receivable turnover for Year 2 and Year 1. Round to one decimal place.

Year 2:

Year 1:

b. Compute the days' sales in receivables for Year 2 and Year 1. Round interim calculations and final answers to one decimal place. Use 365 days per year in your calculations.

Year 2: ____days

Year 1: ____ days

a. Accounts receivable turnover formula is given by: Accounts receivable turnover = Net **credit** sales / Average accounts receivable where Average accounts receivable = (Beginning accounts receivable + Ending accounts receivable)/2.

Substitute the given values: Year 2: Accounts receivable turnover = $3,325,880 ÷ [(251,850 + 244,550) ÷ 2] = 12.7Year 1: Beginning **accounts** receivable = $281,050. Ending accounts receivable = $244,550. Accounts receivable turnover = $3,390,120 ÷ [(281,050 + 244,550) ÷ 2] = 12.3b. Days' sales in receivables formula is given by: Days' sales in receivables = (Average accounts receivable / Net credit sales) x 365. Substitute the values: Year 2: Average accounts receivable = ($251,850 + $244,550) / 2 = $248,200 Days' sales in receivables = ($248,200 ÷ $3,325,880) x 365 = 27.2 days (rounded off to one decimal place) Year 1: Average accounts receivable = ($281,050 + $244,550) / 2 = $262,800 Days' sales in receivables = ($262,800 ÷ $3,390,120) x 365 = 28.4 days (rounded off to one decimal place). Hence, the final answers for the accounts receivable **turnover** and days' sales in receivables are given below: Year 2: Accounts receivable turnover: 12.7Days' sales in receivables: 27.2 days Year 1: Accounts receivable turnover: 12.3 Days' sales in receivables: 28.4 days.

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As a group, take a look at Exhibit 3–6 "Responses to Job Dissatisfaction" in your e-text. As a discussion, each member should come up with a time that they experienced job dissatisfaction choosing which of the four options were used to express your dissatisfaction, how it happened and why each person believes they responded that way. Summarize and compile your answers into a Word Document and submit here. Assignment should be approximately 2 pages in length and should address each of the four options whether each group member experienced each or not.

Exit. Actively attempting to leave the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. This action is destructive from the point of view of the organization. Researchers study individual terminations and collec- tive turnover, the total loss to the organization of employee knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics.109

• Voice. Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and some forms of union activity.

• Loyalty. Passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve, including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism and trusting the organization and its management to "do the right thing."

• Neglect. Passively allowing conditions to worsen, including chronic absen- teeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. This action is destructive from the point of view of the organization

A measure of a worker's **contentment **with their job, whether they like the job or **specific features** or facets of occupations, such as the nature of the labor or supervision, is called job satisfaction, employee satisfaction, or work satisfaction.

The **cognitive **(or evaluative), **affective **(or emotional), and **behavioral components **of job satisfaction can all be assessed. Researchers have also observed that different work satisfaction measures vary in how much they capture thoughts or feelings about the job (cognitive job satisfaction) or both (affective job satisfaction).

According to **Hulin **and **Judge **(**2003**), work satisfaction encompasses multidimensional **psychological reactions** to a person's employment that include cognitive (evaluative), affective (or emotional), and behavioral elements.

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Which of the following statements is incorrect: a. sales of used cars, existing homes and other second-hand goods are not included in GDP. b. GDP measures the market value of final goods and services produced in a country during a given time period. c. the valued-added approach avoids double counting when GDP is measured.

d. GDP measures the value of all market and non-market goods and services produced during a given time period.

The incorrect statement among the options is d. G**DP measures the value of all market **and non-market goods and services produced during a given time period.

**GDP, or Gross Domestic Product**, is a measure of the total value of final goods and services produced within a country's borders during a specific time period. However, GDP does not include the value of all market and non-market goods and services.

Option a is correct because sales of used cars, existing homes, and second-hand goods are not included in GDP. GDP only measures the value of newly **produced goods and services.**

Option b is also correct as GDP indeed measures the market value of final goods and services. It quantifies the value of goods and services that are sold in the market and used for final consumption, investment, government** spending, and net exports.**

Option c is correct as well. The value-added approach is used in GDP calculations to avoid double counting. It focuses on the additional value created at each stage of production rather than counting the total value of intermediate goods multiple times.

However, option d is incorrect. GDP does not measure the value of all market and non-market goods and services. Non-market goods and services, such as volunteer work or unpaid household activities, are not included in GDP calculations. GDP only captures the value of goods and services that are **exchanged in the market.**

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growth of real gdp per person is totally determined by the growth of average:

The rise in average** productivity** is the main factor influencing the growth of real **GDP** per person.

A number of factors affect the rise of real **GDP **per person, also referred to as per capita GDP. However, a **significant factor **influencing the overall rise of real GDP per person is the increase in average productivity.

The quantity of output produced per** unit** of input or labour is referred to as average productivity. When the average productivity rises, people are putting out more product per hour of labour, which boosts economic production. In turn, this helps to increase real GDP per person.

Higher average productivity is frequently attained through elements including **technological growth**, enhanced infrastructure, accessibility to education and skill development, and effective resource management. These elements help people produce more goods and services.

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On January 1, 2020, Waterway Company sold 12% bonds having a maturity value of $900,000 for $968,233, which provides the bondholders with a 10% yield. The bonds are dated January 1, 2020, and mature January 1, 2025, with interest payable December 31 of each year. Waterway Company allocates interest and unamortized discount or premium on the effective-interest basis.

A-Prepare a schedule of interest expense and bond amortization for 2020–2022.

The schedule of **interest expense** and bond amortization for Waterway Company's 12% bonds from 2020 to 2022 is as follows:

- For the year 2020, the interest expense is $97,468, and the bond **amortization **is $3,235.

- For the year 2021, the interest expense is $97,468, and the bond amortization is $3,235.

- For the year 2022, the interest expense is $97,468, and the bond amortization is $3,235.

To calculate the schedule of interest expense and bond amortization, we need to consider the information given in the problem. The bonds were sold for $968,233, which is the present value of the future cash flows. The maturity value of the bonds is $900,000, and the yield is 10%. This means that the **annual interest **payment is $90,000 ($900,000 * 10%).

To determine the interest expense for each year, we multiply the carrying value of the bonds (which changes over time due to amortization) by the yield. In this case, the carrying **value **of the bonds is $968,233 in the first year. Therefore, the interest expense for the year 2020 is $97,468 ($968,233 * 10%).

The bond amortization represents the adjustment made to the carrying value of the bonds to bring it closer to the maturity value over time. To calculate the bond amortization, we subtract the interest expense from the annual interest payment. In this case, the bond amortization for each year is $3,235 ($90,000 - $97,468).

Since the problem does not provide specific information about changes in the carrying value due to amortization, we assume that the carrying value remains **constant **at $968,233 for the years 2020 to 2022. Therefore, the interest expense and bond amortization amounts remain the same for each of those years.

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The Covid-19 global pandemic has disrupted supply chains worldwide. This supply chain disruption would have impacted procurement in an organisation.

Any of the following procurement areas could be impacted from Covid-19 outbreak:

• supply of products and/or services the organisation has outsourced,

• commodity procurement,

• global sourcing,

• capital procurement or

• project procurement.

Refer back to the organisation for your answer to Question 1(b).

(a) First, describe which procurement areas of the organisation were impacted by Covid-19. Then, examine how to manage any conflict and dispute in buyer- supplier relations, arising from the procurement area(s) impacted in the organisation.

(b) Develop a plan to manage Supply Side Risk, based on the experience learned from the Covid-19 pandemic for the organisation.

The supply chain **disruption **caused by the Covid-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the procurement process. Organizations have been affected, with procurement areas such as commodity procurement, project procurement, capital procurement, global sourcing, and supply of products and/or services the organization has outsourced all impacted.

(a)The Covid-19 **pandemic **has affected the supply chain across the globe, which has led to the disruption of the procurement process. In the organization, the following procurement areas were impacted by Covid-19 outbreak:Supply of products and/or services the organization has outsourced.Commodity procurement.Global sourcing.Capital procurement or.Project procurement.The conflict and dispute in buyer-supplier relations, arising from the procurement area(s) impacted in the organization can be managed by following ways:

(b)Plan to manage Supply Side Risk based on the experience learned from the Covid-19 pandemic for the organization:

Identify risk exposure and tolerance levelAssess critical suppliersDevelop and implementThe conflict and dispute in buyer-supplier relations, arising from the procurement area(s) impacted in the organization, can be managed by employing measures such as effective communication, compliance management, strategic procurement, procurement data analytics, risk management, and supplier relationship management (SRM).

To manage Supply Side Risk based on the experience learned from the Covid-19 pandemic for the organization, the organization can employ measures such as supplier qualification and selection program, exploring supply chain financing options, enhancing supplier communication and collaboration, identifying risk exposure and tolerance level, assessing critical suppliers, developing and implementing contingency plans and strategies, establishing strategic partnerships with suppliers, and developing and maintaining a diversified supply chain.

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